Non-ferrous metallurgy includes the extraction and processing of non-ferrous metal ores, the smelting of metals and alloys, and the production of rolled steel. Non-ferrous metals include all metals except ferrous metals, i.e. except chromium, manganese and iron. They are also obtained by junk my cars scarborough. The most common nonferrous metals in use are:
Light – aluminum, titanium;
Heavy – copper, nickel, zinc, lead;
Alloying – molybdenum, vanadium;
Scattered – zirconium, selenium;
Precious – platinum, gold, silver.
Non-ferrous metals are als
o important structural materials used in the modern mechanical engineering industry. Also, because of their wide variety of properties, these materials are extremely in demand in the production of jet
engines and radioelectronics.
Non-Ferrous Metals Production Features
In contrast to the ferrous metallurgical complex, speaking of non-ferrous metallurgy, the following points can be highlighted:
The poverty of ores. For comparison, copper or zinc is most often produced from ore, which contains only about 1% of the basic metal, and maybe even less. It follows that beneficiation is an important production process in non-ferrous metallurgy. As a result of enrichment, the percentage of the main metal in the ore reaches 40-65%.
Complexity of ores. This means that both nickel, zinc and sulfur can be found in the ore at the same time. In some cases the number of non-ferrous metals, included in such “complex” can be up to 10 and more. In this case, the solution to the problem lies in the separation of metals into components for further work with each metal ore separately. Often, non-ferrous metallurgy plants are based on combined production.
The branch structure of non-ferrous metallurgy is very complicated still, first of all, because there are more than 70 metals. Although only four metals – lead, zinc, aluminum and copper – largely dominate in terms of production volume.
Metallurgy of nonferrous metals is very energy intensive. For example, for aluminum smelting – 18 thousand kWh/t, titanium – 30-60 thousand kWh/t metal.
When locating aluminum smelting plants, they are guided by the principle of transport and energy component. While smelting plants for heavy non-ferrous metals, such as lead, are based solely on the principle of raw materials.